Erma Hermawar(1*), Rahmat Husein(2), Audi Yundayani(3),

(1) Universitas Terbuka Indonesia
(2) Universitas Negeri Medan
(3) STKIP Kusumanegara, Medan
(*) Corresponding Author



This study investigates the types of interlanguage of adjective phrase construction that students made when writing English descriptive text. The errors function as a system and can be used to determine interlanguage. The researcher employed a cross-sectional design and used descriptive qualitative methods. The descriptive texts of the students were collected as primary data at the same time but different levels of proficiency. Thirty tenth-grade students from Matauli Senior High School in Central Tapanuli, North Sumatera, participated in the study. Error Analysis (EA) and Interlanguage theories were central to the data analysis (IL). The findings revealed that students' English production is still interlanguage because their writings contain a wide range of errors regarding adjective phrases. There are 113 errors in total. There are up to 70 items of omission errors (62%), 19 items of misformation errors (17%), 15 items of misordering errors (13%), and 9 items of addition errors (8%). Furthermore, four processes were identified as contributing to students' interlanguage in this study, with the student's native language having the greatest influence on their English production (Language transfer (71%), second language learning strategies (14%), false concepts hypothesized (9.7%), and overgeneralization (5.3%)). The findings also revealed that both interlingual and intralingual sources have caused errors in second language learning. It can be concluded that students' competence at each level is insufficient. Due to their system, they are on the interlanguage continuum, which has a structurally intermediate status between the native and target languages.


Error Analysis (EA), Adjective Phrase Construction, Interlanguage (IL)

Full Text:



Ariyanti, A., & Fitriana, R. (2017). EFL Students’ Difficulties and Needs in Essay Writing. Proceedings of the International Conference on Teacher Training and Education 2017 (ICTTE 2017).

Atzori, M., Cognolato, M., & Müller, H. (2016). Deep learning with convolutional neural networks applied to electromyography data: A resource for the classification of movements for prosthetic hands. Frontiers in Neurorobotics.

Aziez, F. (2018). An Analysis of Interlanguage Performed by Students of an Islamic Boarding School in Tasikmalaya. Academic Journal Perspective : Education, Language, and Literature, 4(2), 102.

Bardovi-Harlig, K. (2017). Beyond individual form-meaning associations in L2 Tense-Mood-Aspect research (pp. 27–52).

Borg, S., & Edmett, A. (2019). Developing a self-assessment tool for English language teachers. Language Teaching Research, 23(5), 655–679.

Burhanuddin, B., Bazergan, E., & Buton, T. (2018). Syntactic Analysis of Sentence Structures in Bussiness Letters by The Fifth Semester Students of Letters Faculty of UMI Makassar. Tamaddun, 17(1), 14–21.

Candarli, D. (2021). A longitudinal study of multi-word constructions in L2 academic writing: the effects of frequency and dispersion. Reading and Writing, 34(5), 1191–1223.

Denhovska, N., Serratrice, L., & Payne, J. (2016). Acquisition of Second Language Grammar Under Incidental Learning Conditions: The Role of Frequency and Working Memory. Language Learning, 66(1), 159–190.

Ducar, C., & Schocket, D. H. (2018). Machine translation and the L2 classroom: Pedagogical solutions for making peace with Google translate. Foreign Language Annals, 51(4), 779–795.

Fitriana, M., Rasyid, Y., & Dewanti, R. (2020). The flipped english classroom in EFL context: A study of education 4.0. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(5 Special Issue), 1503–1508.

Georgiadou, V., Kafe, A., Nezi, S., & Pieridis, C. (2019). Plebiscitarian Spirit in the Square. Key Characteristics of the Greek Indignants. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, 32(1), 43–59.

Graves, M. F. (2016). The Vocabulary Book: Learning & Instruction. In Reading Today.

Hulland, J., Baumgartner, H., & Smith, K. M. (2018). Marketing survey research best practices: evidence and recommendations from a review of JAMS articles. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 46(1), 92–108.

Kolarik, B. S., Shahlaie, K., Hassan, A., Borders, A. A., Kaufman, K. C., Gurkoff, G., Yonelinas, A. P., & Ekstrom, A. D. (2016). Impairments in precision, rather than spatial strategy, characterize performance on the virtual Morris Water Maze: A case study. Neuropsychologia, 80, 90–101.

Leybaert, J., Bayard, C., Colin, C., & Carol, L. (2015). Cued Speech and Cochlear Implants: A powerful combination for natural spoken language acquisition and the development of reading. In Oxford Handbook of Deaf Studies in Language: Research, Policy, and Practice. (pp. 359–376).

Mahmood, A. H., & Murad, I. M. A. (2018). Approaching the Language of the Second Language Learner: Interlanguage and the Models Before. English Language Teaching, 11(10), 95.

Mirzaei, A., Rahimi Domakani, M., & Rahimi, S. (2016). Computerized lexis-based instruction in EFL classrooms: Using multi-purpose LexisBOARD to teach L2 vocabulary. ReCALL, 28(1), 22–43.

Mohajan, H. K. (2017). TWO CRITERIA FOR GOOD MEASUREMENTS IN RESEARCH: VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY. Annals of Spiru Haret University. Economic Series, 17(4), 59–82.

Mulyaningsih, T., & Yuliana, Y. G. S. (2019). Need Analysis as the Foundation to Develop Supplementary Material for Tenth Grade Students. JELTIM (Journal of English Language Teaching Innovations and Materials), 1(2), 16.

Parkinson, J. (2017). The student laboratory report genre: A genre analysis. English for Specific Purposes, 45, 1–13.

Shin, Y. K., Cortes, V., & Yoo, I. W. (2018). Using lexical bundles as a tool to analyze definite article use in L2 academic writing: An exploratory study. Journal of Second Language Writing, 39, 29–41.

Turmudi, D. (2020). English Scholarly Publishing Activities in the Industrial Revolution 4 . 0 : What , Why , and How ? ELTEJ, 3(1), 52–63.

WU, X.-J. (2017). Error Analysis of Interlanguage in English Writing. DEStech Transactions on Social Science, Education and Human Science, mess.

Yoon, H.-J., & Polio, C. (2017). The Linguistic Development of Students of English as a Second Language in Two Written Genres. TESOL Quarterly, 51(2), 275–301.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Premise: Journal of English Education and Applied Linguistics



Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro

Unit Publikasi Ilmiah (Scientific Publication Unit)


Gedung HI Lt 1, Ruang UPT Publikasi Ilmiah Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro

Jl. Ki Hajar Dewantara No.116, Iringmulyo, Metro Timur, Kota Metro, Lampung 34111
Phone/WA: +6285709141060 


e-ISSN-2442-482x  p-ISSN-2089-3355

Download Premise Official Template  June -October 2023