Emma Rosana Febriyanti(1*),

(1) Universitas Lambung Mangkurat
(*) Corresponding Author


Several studies have highlighted the importance of language learning strategies (LLS) for both second and foreign-language learners. These strategies have been performed a significant role in distinguishing between more successful and less successful language learners. However, the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020 brought about unprecedented changes in the teaching-learning process, with a shift towards online platforms. This study aims to investigate whether there are any similarities or differences in the language learning strategies employed by 85 students from the Mathematics and Biology Departments, who are ESP (English for Specific Purposes) learners taking English courses, during and after the pandemic. To collect data, the researcher utilized the Strategy Inventory of Language Learning from Oxford (1990), which was translated into Indonesian to ensure clear comprehension among the learners. Descriptive statistics were then employed to analyze the gathered data. The results of the analysis revealed that, regardless of the circumstances, the students consistently applied the metacognitive strategy more frequently than other strategies. Additionally, the findings indicated that the students utilized the social strategy during the Covid-19 pandemic, while the affective strategy was employed to a lesser extent in the post-pandemic period. The outcomes of this study have significant implications as they raise awareness among learners and ESP instructors about the benefits of employing language learning strategies. Recognizing and utilizing these strategies can greatly enhance language learning outcomes. By understanding the preferred strategies employed by students during different periods, instructors can tailor their teaching approaches accordingly to maximize the effectiveness of language instruction.


ESP learners, online learning, offline learning, Covid-19 pandemic, language learning strategies


Abdelrahman, R. M. (2020). Metacognitive awareness and academic motivation and their impact on academic achievement of Ajman University students. Heliyon, 6(9).

Abendroth, J., & Richter, T. (2021). How to understand what you don’t believe: Metacognitive training prevents belief-biases in multiple text comprehension. Learning and Instruction, 71(8).

Altunay, A. P. D. D., Campus, T. S., & Antakya, H. A. T. A. Y. (2014). Language learning strategies used by distance learners of English: A study with a group of Turkish distance learners of EFL. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education- TOJDE, 15.

Alqahtani, A.A., & Alhebaishi, S. M. (2010). Language learning strategies in an ESP context: A study of political sciences students. MJAl, 2(6), 467-477.

Andel, S. A., de Vreede, T., Spector, P. E., Padmanabhan, B., Singh, V. K., & Vreede, G. J. de. (2020). Do social features help in video-centric online learning platforms? A social presence perspective. Computers in Human Behavior, 113(4).

Chang, M. M. (2013). Effects of self-monitoring on web-based language learner's performance and motivation. CALICO Journal, 27(2), 298-310.

Chen, H. L., Waghid, Y., & Moyo, T. (2020). The contribution of higher education to learners' well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. Higher Education Research & Development, 39(7), 1403-1406.

Crawford-Ferre, H. G., & Wiest, L. R. (2012). Promoting social interactions in an online course: A case study. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 8(3), 227-236.

Davies, J., & Graff, M. (2005). Performance in e-learning: Online participation and student grades. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(4), 657-663.

Dewi, N. R., Kannapiran, S., & Wibowo, S. W. A. (2018). Development of digital storytelling-based science teaching materials to improve students’ metacognitive ability. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 7(1), 16–24.

De Bot, K., Lowie, W., & Verspoor, M.H. (2007). A dynamic systems theory approach to second language acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10 (1), 2007, 7–21.

Griffiths. (2010). Strategies of successful language learners. JELS, 1(3), 1-18.

Hashimoto, T., Hayashi, Y., & Seta, K. (2019). Metacognitive Inference Activity Support by Visualizing Eye-Movement Graph During Critical Reading. Procedia Computer Science, 159.

Hutchinson, T. & Waters, A. (1987). English for Specific Purposes. A learning-Centered Approach. Cambridge University.

Kuama, S., & Intharaksa, U. (2016). Is online learning suitable for all English language students? PASAA, 52(7), 53-82.

Lawson, M.J., & Hogben, D. (1996). The vocabulary-learning strategies of foreign language students. Language Learning, 46(1), 101-135.

Liu, Y., & Feng, H. (2011). An empirical study on the relationship between metacognitive strategies and online-learning behavior & test achievements. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(1), 183-187.

Marlin, Saehu, A. , & Yundayani, A. . (2021). Investigating Students’ Language Learning Strategies During Online Learning: How They Deal with Speaking Ability. JEELS (Journal of English Education and Linguistics Studies), 8(2), 229–261.

Mokhtarianpour, M. (2016). Islamic Model of Iranian Pattern Development Process Model. The Pattern of Islamic Development of Iran, 4 (8), 9-30

Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House Publishers.

O’Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. Handbook of self-regulation, 452-502. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation pp. 451–502. Elsevier.

Rianto, A. (2021). Indonesian EFL university students’ metacognitive online reading strategies before and during the Covid-19 pandemic. SIELE Studies in English Language and Education, 8(1), 16-33.

Royani, I., Cahyani, N., & Ariannur, W. (2021). English students’ learning strategies during pandemic Covid-19. Proceeding of The Second International Conference of TBI. pp 1-16

Rubin, J. (1975). What the “Good Language Learner” Can Teach Us. TESOL Quarterly, 9, 41-51.

Sitzmann, T., Ely, K., Bell, B. S., & Bauer, K. N. (2010). The effects of technical difficulties on learning and attrition during online training. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 16(3), 281–292.

Shih, Y. C. D. (2005). Taiwanese EFL learners' online language learning strategies. In Advanced Learning Technologies, 2005. Fifth EEE International Conference on (pp. 1042-1046).

Sukying, A. (2021). Choices of language learning strategies and English proficiency of EFL university learners. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 14(2), 59-87.

Tsai, M. J. (2009). The model of strategic e-learning: Understanding and evaluating student e-learning from metacognitive perspectives. Educational Technology & Society, 12(1), 34-48.

Wei, X., Saab, N., & Admiraal, W. (2021). Assessment of cognitive, behavioral, and affective learning outcomes in massive open online courses: A systematic literature review. Computers & Education, 163, 104097.

Webster, J., & Hackley, P. (1997). Teaching effectiveness in technology mediated distance learning. Academy of Management Journal, 40(6), 1282-1309.

Wirawati (2022). Post Covid 19 learning adaptation: Teachers’ strategies and innovations in teaching English in the post pandemic. EduLine: Journal of Education and Learning Innovation, 2(3): 226–233.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Authors

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.



Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro

Unit Publikasi Ilmiah (Scientific Publication Unit)


Gedung HI Lt 1, Ruang UPT Publikasi Ilmiah Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro

Jl. Ki Hajar Dewantara No.116, Iringmulyo, Metro Timur, Kota Metro, Lampung 34111
Phone/WA: +6285709141060 


e-ISSN-2442-482x  p-ISSN-2089-3355

Download Premise Official Template  June -October 2023