Metaphor Counseling and Students Responsibility on 6-7 Years Old

Riana Mashar (1*), Juntika Nurihsan (2),

(1) Universitas Muhammadiyah Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia
(2) Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


The research aimed to figure out the effect of metaphor counseling in STAR KIDS (Story Teach Responsibility for Kids) module toward the responsibility of 6-7 year-old students of the first grade of elementary school. The research used untreated control group design by providing pretest and posttest sample design. The research subject consisted of 21 students as the experiment group and 26 students as control group. The responsibility data collection was performed by using observation guideline checklist, which was quantified in interval scale. The children’s intelligences were measured by SPM Raven scale. The STAR KIDS treatment was given in 15 meetings. The results of the pretest and posttest were analyzed by using Anacova analysis technique through SPSS 17 for Windows. The research result showed that (1) students of experiment group who received STAR KIDS metaphor counseling showed higher responsibility increase rather than students of control group who did not receive the treatment, (2) The intelligence of the students did not show the effect on the effectiveness of counseling metaphor.


metaphor counseling; child responsibility; intelligent


Arsenio, W.F. & Lemerisse, E.A. (2010). Emotion, aggression, and morality in children; bridging development and psychopathology. Washington DC: American Psychological Assosiation

Barker, P. (1996). Psychotherapeuitic metaphor: a guide to theory and practice. New York: Brunner/Mazel, Inc

Barker, P. (2013). Using metaphor in psychotherapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel, Inc

Beaty. C. (2008). Child Behavior.NewJersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Beck, Laura E. (1994). Child development, 3th edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon

Burns, G.W. (2005). 101 Healingstories for kids and teens, using metaphor in therapy. Ner Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chartrand, M.S. (2013). Gender differences in child development. Diakses tanggal 07 Januari 2015 dari

Chesley, Gayle et all. (2008). Verbal and nonverbal metaphor with children in counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, No. 86 Fall 399-411.

Close, Henry T. (1998). Metaphor in psychotherapy, clinical application of stories and allegories. California: Impact Publishers.

Conte, C. (2009). Advanced technique for counseling and psychotherapy. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Creswell, J.W. & Clark, V.L.P. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. London: Sage Publications

DeRosier, M.E & Mercer, S.H. (2007). Improving student social behavior the effectiveness of a storytelling-based character education program. Journal of Research in Character Education, Vol. 5 (2). Pp. 131-148. Information Age Publishing, Inc.

Escarti, Guiterrez, Pascual, and Llopis.(2010). Implementation of the personal and social responsibility model to improve self efficacy during physical education classses for primary school children. International Journal of Psychology and Pscychological Therapy. Vol. 10 No. 3,

Geldard, K & Geldard, D. (2011). Counselling children, A practical introductin, Third Edition. Illinois: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Geldard, Yin-Foo, & Shakespeare-Finch, (2009). How to using a fruit tree like you? Using metaphors to explore and develop emoitonal competence in children. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling. 19(1). Pp 1-13. Diakses pada tanggal 10 November 2014.

Hurlock, E. (1978). Child development, sixth edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Katz, Laurie. (2012). Inclusive in Classroom. Class presentation (unpublished). Colombus: Ohio State University

Kopp, R.R. (1995). Metaphor therapy: Using client-generated metaphors inpsychotherapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Lickona, T. (1991). Educating for Character: How Our School Can Teach Respect and Responsibility. New York: The New York Times Company

Lickona, T. (2005). Traditional View of Character and Character Education. New York: State University of New York.

Lickona, T & Davidson, M. (2005). Smart and Good High Schools: A Report to The Nation. Greensboro, NC: Character Development Group.

Lyddon, W.J., Clay, A.L., & Sparks, C.L. (2001). Metaphor and change in counselling. Journal of Counselling and Development, Vo;. 79, pg. 269-274.

Martin, J., Cummings, A.L., dan Hallberg, E.T. (1992). Therapists’ intentional use of metaphor: Memorability, clinical impact, and possible epistemic/motivational functions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 143-145.

Mashar, R. 2013. Empati sebagai Dasar Pembentukan Karakter Anak Usia Dini. Jurnal Pendidikan Anak, Vol. 2 No. 2 tahun 2013. Accessed from http://www.

McGinnis, E & Goldstein. (2003). Skillstreaming in early childhood, Revised Edition, New Strategies and Perspectives for Teaching Prosocial Skills. Illinois: Research Press.

Megawangi, R. (2010). Pengembangan program karakter di sekolah: Pengalaman sekolah karakter. Diakses pada tanggal 07 Januari 2014, dari:

Mirrell, K.W. (2003). Behavioral, Social, and Emotonal Assessment of Children and Adolescents, second edition. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Ministry of Education Singapore. (2014). Primary school education, preparing your child for tommorow.

Muro, J.J & Kottman, T. (1995). Guidance and Counseling In the Elementary and Midle Schools, A Practical Approach. Iowa: WCB Brown & Benchmark

Ochs, E & Izquierdo, E. (2009). Responsibility in Childhood: Three Developmental Trajectories. ETHOS: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology, Vol. 37, Issue 4, pp. 391-413, ISSN 0091-2131

Overby, Renee. (2010). What do They (Anna Freud, Jean Piaget, and Erik Erikson) Know About My Children, Anyway?. Diakses pada tanggal 29 April 2010.

Papalia, D.E., Olds, S.W., dan Feldman, R.D. (2002). A Child’s World, Infancy through Adolescence. Ninth Edition. Boston: McGraw Hill

Rasmussen, B.R., dan Angus, L. (1996). Metaphor in psychodynamic psychotherapy with borderline and non-borderline clients: A quantitative analysis. Psychotherapy, 33, 521-530.

Santrock, J.W. (2002). Life Span Development: Perkembangan Masa Hidup Jilid 1 (terjemahan). Jakarta: Penerbit Airlangga

Sopory, P., dan Dillard, J.P. (2002). The persuasive effects of metaphor: a meta-analysis. Human Communication Research, 28, 382-419.

Thomas, R. (2011). Autonomy, responsibility, and families: keynote address presented at 12th international conference on theory and education, Barcelona, Spain. Diakses dari http://www.internationalconference_theoryand.

Tucker, B. (2012). Building Responsibility, How To Teach My Children to be More Responsible. Arizona: The University of Arizona

Werner dan Smith. (1989). Vulnerable but invicible: a longitudinal study of resilient children and youth. New York: Adam, Bannister and Cox.

Riana Mashar
Universitas Muhammadiyah Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia

Juntika Nurihsan
Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

10.24127/gdn.v7i2.820 73 Views, Vol 7, No 2 (2017) Section: ARTICLES Submitted: 2017-02-21 Published: 2017-12-30